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Afghan peace process: China in lead role

Pakistan Focus Analysis:

To end the Afghan impasse, America is encouraging Pakistan and China to support President Ghani’s reconciliation efforts.China-role-in-Afghanistan Now China is in the lead. China’s foreign minister last month said during a visit to Islamabad that Beijing was willing to help mediate talks to end the Afghan war. Under the envisaged arrangement, China is to act as a ‘guarantor’ for any peace deal between the insurgents and the Afghan government. This is a good approach because China, due to its credibility amongst all stake-holders is better placed to lead the process and act as guarantor for the implementation of the agreement. Days after information leaked about intra Afghan talks, senior representatives of the militant group visited Islamabad for secret discussions on the modalities. They left with a message from Pakistan: the Taliban must end a rift between top leaders, or talks might never get off the ground.

Both sides—Taliban and the Afghan government—are deeply suspicious of each other. Taliban representatives have indicated that, should talks begin, they would make demands including the immediate departure of all foreign troops. A senior aide to President Ashraf Ghani said anticipated Taliban demands, which may also include re-imposing the harsh interpretation of Islamic law would be unacceptable. The aide said Pakistani intermediaries were “working to find middle ground”, but so far reported no change in the Taliban stance. “If these demands are not softened,” the aide said, “the first day of talks could become the last day of talks.”

President Obama’s special envoy, Daniel F Feldman, has visited Islamabad and held important talks. He met Army Chief General Raheel Sharif as well. Regional situation was discussed during these meetings. Feldman appreciated Pakistan’s positive role for peace and stability in Afghanistan. Feldman’s visit was aimed at discussing the prospects of a peace deal in the backdrop of the latest initiatives. Afghan Taliban talks with the government in Kabul are likely to take place soon, though certain sticky issues are yet to be finalized; for example, Islamabad, Beijing, Kabul and Dubai have been shortlisted as possible venues; however, efforts are being made to arrange the talks in Kabul in an effort to show that the process is Afghan-led and Afghan-owned.

Reportedly, China has held rounds of talks with the Taliban and asked them to hold direct talks with the Afghan government. The Chinese have held “one, two or three” rounds of talks with the Taliban in the past few months, Dr Abdullah Abdullah said at a conference organized by an Indian media group. “They asked the Taliban to have talks directly with the Afghan government, that’s a good message,” Abdullah said, adding that he did not know what the outcome would be of China’s efforts. Abdullah, speaking at the India Today Conclave 2015 in New Delhi, did not say where the meetings took place. Abdullah’s backing of the nascent process is crucial because many of his supporters represent the anti-Taliban sentiment. Dr Abdullah has also asked India not to overreact about improvement in bilateral relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan. These messages coming from Dr Abdullah are welcome signs, it is  indeed a paradigm shift in his approach towards  Afghan crisis in particular and regional dynamics in particular.

The two sides—Taliban and Afghan government— have been in informal contact with each other for some time, however, this is the first time that they plan to publically share a table to converse about future political landscape of AfghanistanBN-GH247_AFCHIN_J_20150106120344. Committees for the proposed talks on both the sides are engaged in affairs like discussing agendas for talks and other issues, however, as of now no direct meeting has taken place. Debate is going on the issue of presence of foreign forces in Afghanistan; spokesman of Afghan Taliban Zabihullah Mujahid has commented in a message that no doubt that Afghans want peace, but this is possible after the foreign forces stop aggression and allow sovereignty to Afghans. The Taliban leadership is not out-rightly rejecting the prospect of talks with the Afghan government.

President Obama held a video conference with President Ashraf Ghani, on March 13, and discussed the peace process and commended the regime’s efforts to improve relationship with Pakistan. Afghanistan’s Chief Executive Officer Dr Abdullah Abdullah also participated in the conference call. “The President commended President Ghani and Dr Abdullah on their leadership in promoting an Afghan peace process to end the conflict in Afghanistan and their initiative to improve Afghanistan-Pakistan relations,” the White House said. The Taliban side is also silent over the Afghan government’s willingness to give share to them in power and also accept their demands within constitutional framework. Taliban are accepting that their members visit certain countries for various issues and have traditional links with several countries. An Afghan government official has said that the issues about which Taliban have concerns could be discussed and sorted out once the talk process starts.

Repatriation of Afghan refugees is an important aspect of the final intra Afghan settlement. Pakistan is fully committed to the internationally endorsed Solutin Strategy for Afghan Refugees. During the London Conference on Afghanistan, in December 2014, Prime Minister Nawaz had called upon the international community to support Afghanistan to bring back Afghan refugees living abroad, by helping to create conducive conditions for their sustainable reintegration in their homeland. Now, things are moving in the right direction; Afghan Minister for Refugees and Repatriation, Sayed Balkhi, has said that an inter-ministerial Board has been constituted in Afghanistan for overseeing return of Afghan refugees which is being chaired by Presidential Ashraf Ghani.

With the change of leadership in Afghanistan, the two countries have commenced a historic new phase in bilateral relations. Now focus is on enhanced political engagement, security and counter-terrorism cooperation, trade and economic partnership, and regional cooperation. Terrorism is a common enemy of the two countries and it requires common endeavours to defeat it. Both the countries have paid a very heavy price at the hands of terrorism and now Pakistan has launched Operation Zarb-e-Azb which has broken the backbone of terrorist network in the country. Pakistan has a commitment, not to allow its territories to be used against other countries. Pakistan is in favour of an Afghan-owned and Afghan-led peace and reconciliation process.

Prime Minister’s Adviser on National Security and Foreign Affairs Sartaj Aziz has also confirmed that the Afghan government and the Taliban were preparing to hold negotiations. Pakistan has always supported such a process, and re-emphasized it to be transparent, Afghan-owned and Afghan-led. The process of intra-Afghan negotiations is likely to be painstakingly slow, progress could be akin to one step forward and two backwards. At this critical time, a caution is due for Pakistan that it should not get involved in the internal affairs of Afghanistan, even if officially invited by the Afghan government, it should only facilitate the process to the extent requested by Afghan government and Taliban. The interlocutors of Afghan peace and reconciliation process should look for strong guarantors to the anticipated agreement. No single country could bear such burden; however it would be appropriate if all permanent members of UNSC and all six immediate neighbours of Afghanistan jointly underwrite the forthcoming political arrangement in Afghanistan. Above all, America, the real power yielder in Afghanistan’ owes it to the Afghan people and the international community to make the process of intra-Afghan negotiations a success.

The next few days are very crucial. All sides are aware of the fact that the breakthrough has to be achieved before the Taliban’s spring offensive. All stakeholders are pushing for a formal ceasefire. The first round of talks will focus on striking a deal on a ceasefire. To cater for all possibilities about the outcome of talks, White House is likely to extend the stay of about 5500 troops, out of residual garrison of 9,800 combatants in Afghanistan, beyond 2015.

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Afghan peace process back to Doha

Marathon talks between US Special Envoy Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad and Taliban, in Doha, are concentrating on two questions: continuation of American military bases in Afghanistan, and Taliban guarantees of not letting Afghanistan’s territory be used as launching pad against any third country. Taliban are also ready to undertake that they would not support Al-Qaida and Daesh. Mullah Berader is now leading Taliban’s team. Both sides have acknowledged progress on vital points. For the first time Afghan peace process may be moving in the right direction. During the fifth trip of US Special Envoy Ambassador Zalmay to Pakistan, both sided reiterated their shared intent of an Afghan led and Afghan owned political settlement of Afghan conflict. Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid said the dispute highlights a split that has emerged among countries with an interest in the region, with Pakistan and the US pushing Taliban to open talks with Kabul and other countries, including Iran, supporting the Taliban’s stance; “Iran and Qatar are supporting Taliban’s way but Pakistan is saying what the Afghan government and the US wanted”.Pakistan is not averse to the US’ demands but wants a ‘regional consensus’ on it since permanent presence of the US military in Afghanistan would certainly raise eyebrows in Russia, Iran and even China. These countries fear that the US may use the Afghan soil to advance its own strategic designs in the region. For this reason, Pakistan is striving to evolve a regional consensus on the possible Afghan peace deal. Guarantees and assurances aimed at promoting peace and security of both Afghanistan and other countries are understandable. However, demand for permanent military presence is indicative of the desire not only to keep Afghans subjugated but also to brow-beat other regional countries.

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